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Environmental Crime

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How do I find a book? His extremely low self-esteem is related to the multiple social inequalities he believes he has experienced. A recent issue of Contemporary Social Science is devoted to the many different inequalities that abound and their wide-ranging consequences. Society cannot be blamed for his violent actions, but the social inequalities he perceives go some way to explain his developing anger and frustration.

The other side of this experience are public attitudes to minorities that influence their experiences. Pride and prejudice: The context of reception for Muslims in the United States.

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Thus, the well-established finding in relation to attitudes to other ethnic minorities, that lack of contact and ignorance are usually on the basis of prejudice, is shown to be relevant today in attitudes to Moslems. Islam is, of course, a powerful religion that provides rules that cover every aspect of daily life. These rules typically include strictures on a wide range of criminal activities. It may therefore be assumed that adherence to conventional Islamic requirements, far from leading to anti-social activity, should actually deter from crime.

To study this directly Ozbay Ozbay, O. Does Islam deter crime in a secular Islamic Country? The case of Turkey. Because Turkey is constitutionally a secular country although the great majority of its population is Moslem, this enables Ozbay to explore correlations between crime and religiosity. He found that there was no strong direct relationship at all.

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But interestingly the Islamic prohibition on alcohol did tend to relate to lower crime levels. This is no surprise in many other countries where alcohol abuse is known to fuel many aspects of criminality. The role of a religious component in influencing criminality is one aspect of many cultural forces that shape the amount of crime in any country. This issue is explored in a statistically sophisticated manner by Jagadish Sahu Sahu, J.

Is there a natural rate of crime in India? He shows that although there are small discontinuities from time to time, there is a general trend for the crime rate to remain stable. Even examining different types of crime this stability remains, but importantly that is more likely to be the case for instrumental crimes that have a financial incentive. This raises the possibility that violent crimes may be a stronger reflection of short-term changes in society than property-related crimes. As Sahu makes clear, the existence of a natural crime rate in India over an extended period of time raises questions about how powerful conventional deterrents, such as policing and legal processes, are likely to be.

Structural forces within society appear to maintain crime levels, whether it is education, inequality, employment or other ingrained processes. It is these that must be tackled if natural crime rates are to be influenced. The social processes that support criminal activity can be complex. This is clearly illustrated by the remarkable study by Sogo Olofinbiyi Olofinbiyi, S. Use of drugs and criminal behaviour among female adolescent prostitutes in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

Through discussions with and surveys of sex workers and those associated with them, including brothel keepers, he revealed that sex workers become involved in criminality for many of the same reasons that led them into prostitution, mainly financial gain.

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  • Many of the young women he surveyed were also drug users, but his important finding is that their use of drugs did not generate their criminal activity. Rather it was the network of contacts that sex work brought them into contact with that opened the way for a variety of criminality, even murder of clients, and these actions were typically to enhance their meagre income for prostitution. The survival of the sub-cultures that foster sex work contributes to general patterns of criminality, being an important component of the natural crime rate.

    Drug use amongst these young women cannot be blamed for the criminality they drift into. They make choices that relate to their understanding of the limited opportunities available to them. Social processes not only influence the prevalence of crime but also how it is investigated.

    Nuclear Weapons and State Crime

    A reason for reasonable doubt in social justice: The weight of poverty, race and gender in lopsided homicide case clearances outcomes. The reasons for this disparity in identifying the killer are many. They relate to the resources available to law enforcement and the relationship of the police with their communities as well as the investigative challenges that come from high levels of homicide. But these variations in clear-up rate also feed back into suspicions of the police in some communities creating a vicious loop that makes investigation even more difficult.

    Society thus creates a self-sustaining process that maintains challenges to the fundamental right of equal treatment before the law. The challenges of investigations in disenfranchised communities have parallels in the rapidly growing area of cybercrime. But as Mary Aiken and her colleagues Aiken, M. A consideration of the social impact of cybercrime: Examples from hacking, piracy, and child abuse material online.

    Environmental Crime - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology

    Or is it a range of new forms of criminality that requires a radically different approach to law enforcement and detection? The extensive exploration by Aiken of what cybercrime can be indicates that it covers both established forms of offending and some novel developments. However, central to a majority of cybercrime crime is the paradox that individuals using the internet often think of themselves as operating in a private domain, unaware that they are opening themselves up to the World Wide Web at large. For the moment many criminals have become alert to the new opportunities for crime this novel society offers.

    Their victims have yet to catch up with them. Levi Levi, M. The impacts of organised crime in the EU: Some preliminary thoughts on measurement difficulties. The broader social consequences of these activities are encapsulated in the estimate that these forms of crime cost the EU well over a hundred billion pounds a year of which a very large proportion is various forms of fraud. However, as Levi makes clear there are very different forms of exposure to organised crime in different countries across Europe.

    Therefore considerable effort is needed to clarify the varying social contexts of criminal gangs, teams and networks in order to have a co-ordinated response to the challenges they pose. The social processes that maintain crime and its investigation also leave their mark on the consequences of criminality. Homelessness among formerly incarcerated African-American Men: Contributors and consequences. She shows that in addition to, and probably as a consequence of, the lack of employment and related debilitating effects of incarceration these men are very likely to find themselves without anywhere to live on leaving prison.

    Being homeless makes integration back into society much more difficult and increases the likelihood that these men will drift back into a crimogenic context. This is another example of the recursive societal processes that maintains levels of offending in any population. It is not only offenders who suffer the consequences of their actions; many others are touched by them.

    Current Perspectives

    One group that is rarely considered are those who deal directly with the immediate aftermath, especially of violent terrorist atrocities. These first responders are often assumed to be stoic heroes who have little reaction to the tragedies they deal with. However as Geiger Geiger, B. An inside look at Israeli police critical incident first responders. The central message that emerges from all these studies is that criminality is an integral part of how society, and its culture, is constructed. Thinking of crime as generated by abnormal individuals that is the responsibility of law enforcement and the judicial system is to ignore the endemic processes that sustain it and those who deal with it on a daily basis.